1 Mazragore

Essay On Sammakka Sarakka Jatara English Name

1. Tribe – A tribe is viewed, developmentally or historically, as a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states. A tribe is a group of people, dependent on their land for their livelihood, who are largely self-sufficient. It is perhaps the term most readily understood and used by the general public, stephen Corry defines tribal people as those who. have followed ways of life for many generations that are largely self-sufficient, and are clearly different from the mainstream and dominant society. There are a one hundred and fifty million tribal individuals worldwide. Although nearly all people are indigenous, some are not indigenous to the areas where they now live. The distinction between tribal and indigenous is important because tribal peoples have a special status acknowledged in international law and they often face particular issues in addition to those faced by the wider category of indigenous peoples. Many people used the term tribal society to refer to societies organized largely on the basis of social, especially familial, a customary tribe in these terms is a face-to-face community, relatively bound by kinship relations, reciprocal exchange, and strong ties to place. Tribe is a term due to its roots of being defined by outsiders during the period of colonialism. The word has no shared referent, whether in political form, some argue that it conveys a negative connotation of a timeless unchanging past. To avoid these implications, some have chosen to use the ethnic group. In some places, such as India and North America, tribes are polities that have granted legal recognition. The English word tribe occurs in 12th-century Middle English-literature as referring to one of the tribes of Israel. The Ramnes were named after Romulus, leader of the Latins, Tities after Titus Tatius, leader of the Sabines, according to Livy, the three tribes were squadrons of knights, rather than ethnic divisions. The terms ultimate etymology is uncertain, perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European roots tri-, in 242–240 BC, the Tribal Assembly in the Roman Republic included 35 tribes. The Latin word as used in the Bible translates as Greek phyle, race, tribe, clan, in the historical sense, tribe, race and clan can be used interchangeably. Considerable debate has accompanied efforts to define and characterize tribes, scholars perceive differences between pre-state tribes and contemporary tribes, there is also general controversy over cultural evolution and colonialism. In the popular imagination, tribes reflect a way of life that predates, tribes also privilege primordial social ties, are clearly bounded, homogeneous, parochial, and stable. Tribes are an organization among families, which generates a social and ideological basis for solidarity that is in some way more limited than that of a group or of a nation

2. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes – The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are various officially designated groups of historically disadvantaged indigenous people in India. The terms are recognised in the Constitution of India and the groups are designated in one or other of the categories. During the period of British rule in the Indian subcontinent, they were known as the Depressed Classes, the percentage of people in scheduled castes is essentially the percentage of people in the lower part of Indian society. In modern literature, the Scheduled Castes are sometimes referred to as adi dravida or Dalits, the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes comprise about 16.6 percent and 8.6 percent, respectively, of Indias population. The Constitution Order,1950 lists 1,108 castes across 29 states in its First Schedule, since independence, the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes were given Reservation status, guaranteeing political representation. The Constitution lays down the principles of affirmative action for SCs. Since the 1850s these communities were loosely referred to as Depressed Classes, the early 20th century saw a flurry of activity in the Raj assessing the feasibility of responsible self-government for India. The Morley–Minto Reforms Report, Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms Report and the Simon Commission were several initiatives in this context, a highly contested issue in the proposed reforms was the reservation of seats for representation of the Depressed Classes in provincial and central legislatures. In 1935, Parliament passed the Government of India Act 1935, designed to give Indian provinces greater self-rule, the reservation of seats for the Depressed Classes was incorporated into the act, which came into force in 1937. This discretionary definition was clarified in The Government of India Order,1936, the complete list of castes and tribes was made via two orders, The Constitution Order,1950 and The Constitution Order,1950, respectively. According to the Constitution Orders Act,1990, Scheduled Castes can only belong to Hindu or Sikh or Buddhist religions, there is no religion bar in case of Scheduled Tribes. The Sachar Committee report of 2006 revealed that scheduled castes and tribes of India are not limited to the religion of Hinduism, a number of laws were enacted to implement the provisions in the Constitution. Affirmative action, Provide positive treatment in allotment of jobs and access to education as a means to accelerate the integration of the SCs. Affirmative action is known as reservation. Development, Provide resources and benefits to bridge the gap between the SCs and STs and other communities. Major part played by the Hidayatullah National Law University, the chairpersons of both commissions sit ex officio on the National Human Rights Commission. Seventeen regional offices of the Commissioner were established throughout the country, there was an initiative to replace the Commissioner with a committee in the 48th Amendment to the Constitution, changing Article 338. While the amendment was being debated, the Ministry of Welfare established the first committee for SCs and these functions were modified in September 1987 to include advising the government on broad policy issues and the development levels of SCs and STs

3. India – India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety

4. Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary – Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary located in Eturnagaram village in Bhupalapally district in Telangana, India. It is located 250 km away from Hyderabad, Telangana has splendid wildlife reserves, one of such is the Eturnagaram wildlife sanctuary, which is 100 km from Warangal. The sanctuary is located near the Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Telangana border and it is one of the oldest sanctuaries of Telangana. In the year 1952 on 30 January the erstwhile Hyderabad Government because of its rich bio-diversity declared it as a sanctuary, the land is undulating from steep slopes to gentle slopes from west to east. Three-quarters of the area consist of a plain while the rest is hilly with many streams, godavari river passes through the sanctuary. The vegetation here is tropical dry deciduous with teak and other trees of good quality standing 60 ft, the biennial festival of Sammakka Saralamma Jatara is held in the sanctuary. Flora, The sanctuary has southern tropical dry deciduous type of teak and its associates like thiruman, maddi, fauna, A perennial water source called Dayyam Vagu, divides the sanctuary into almost two halves. It is home to Tiger, Leopard, Wolf, Dholes, Golden jackals, Sloth bear, Chousingha, Blackbuck, Nilgai, Sambar, Spotted deer, Chinkara, Indian giant squirrels, reptiles like Mugger crocodile, Python, Cobra, Kraite, Star. Location,100 km From Warangal, Telangana, coverage area,812 km2 Main attractions, Tiger, Panther, Gaur, Sambar, Cheetal, Nilgiri, Black Buck. Best time to visit, October to May Accommodation, Forest Cottages and Rest House Tadvai, by rail, Nearest railway station is at Warangal By air, Nearest Airport hyderabad. By road, BIt is well connected by Road and it is about 100 km from Warangal and 200 km from Hyderabad

5. Deccan Plateau – The Deccan Plateau is a large plateau in southern India. It rises to 100 metres in the north, and to more than 1 kilometre in the south and it extends over eight Indian states and encompasses a wide range of habitats, covering most of central and southern India. It is separated from the Gangetic plain to the north by the Satpura and Vindhya Ranges, the name Deccan is an anglicised form of the Prakrit word dakkhin, itself derived from the Sanskrit word dákṣiṇa, as the Deccan Plateau is located in southern part of Indian subcontinent. The Deccan region has historically lacked an enduring geo-political centre, and has been defined in various ways, geographers have attempted to define it using indices such as rainfall, vegetation, soil type or physical features. When considering physical features, it is taken to be the bounded by the Narmada River, the Eastern Ghats. The 16th century historian Firishta defined Deccan as the inhabited by the native speakers of Kannada, Marathi. Richard M. Eaton also settled on this linguistic definition, the Western Ghats mountain range is very tall and blocks the moisture from the southwest monsoon from reaching the Deccan Plateau, so the region receives very little rainfall. The eastern Deccan Plateau is at an elevation spanning the southeastern coast of India. Its forests are relatively dry but serve to retain the rain to form streams that feed into rivers that flow into basins. Most Deccan plateau rivers flow south, most of the central plateau is drained by the Tungabhadra River, Krishna River and its tributaries, including the Bhima River, which also run east. The climate of the region varies from semi-arid in the north to tropical in most of the region with distinct wet, rain falls during the monsoon season from about June to October. March to June can be dry and hot, with temperatures regularly exceeding 40 °C. The name derives from the Sanskrit daksina, the plateau is bounded on the east and west by the Ghats, while its northern extremity is the Vindhya Range. The Deccans average elevation is about 2,000 feet, sloping generally eastward, its rivers, the Godavari, Krishna. The plateaus climate is drier than that on the coasts and is arid in places, having once constituted a segment of the ancient continent of Gondwanaland, this land is the oldest and most stable in India. The average height of the Western Ghats, which run along the Arabian Sea, anaimudi Peak in Kerala, with a height of 2,695 m above sea level, is the highest peak of peninsular India. In the Nilgiris lie Ootacamund, the hill station of southern India. The western coastal plain is uneven and swift rivers flow through it that forms beautiful lagoons and backwaters, the east coast is wide with deltas formed by the rivers Godavari, Mahanadi and Kaveri

6. Kumbh Mela – Kumbh Mela or Kumbha Mela is a mass Hindu pilgrimage of faith in which Hindus gather to bathe in a sacred or holy river. Traditionally, four fairs are widely recognized as the Kumbh Melas, the Haridwar Kumbh Mela, the Allahabad Kumbh Mela, the Nashik-Trimbakeshwar Simhastha and these four fairs are held periodically at one of the following places by rotation, Haridwar, Allahabad, Nashik district, and Ujjain. Bathing in these rivers is thought to cleanse a person of all sins, at any given place, the Kumbh Mela is held once in 12 years. There is a difference of around 3 years between the Kumbh Melas at Haridwar and Nashik, the fairs at Nashik and Ujjain are celebrated in the year or one year apart. The exact date is determined according to a combination of positions of the Jupiter, the Sun. At Nashik and Ujjain, the Mela may be held while a planet is in Leo, in this case, at Haridwar and Allahabad, an Ardha Kumbh Mela is held every sixth year, a Maha Kumbh Mela occurs after 144 years. The priests at other places have also claimed their local fairs to be Kumbh Melas, for example, the Mahamaham festival at Kumbakonam, held once in 12 years, is also portrayed as a Kumbh Mela. The exact age of the festival is uncertain, according to medieval Hindu mythology, Lord Vishnu dropped drops of Amrita at four places, while transporting it in a kumbha. These four places are identified as the sites of the Kumbh Mela. The name Kumbh Mela literally means kumbha fair and it is known as Kumbh in Hindi, in Sanskrit and some other Indian languages, it is more often known by its original name Kumbha. The festival is one of the largest peaceful gatherings in the world, there is no precise method of ascertaining the number of pilgrims, and the estimates of the number of pilgrims bathing on the most auspicious day may vary. An estimated 120 million people visited Maha Kumbh Mela in 2013 in Allahabad over a period, including over 30 million on a single day. According to medieval Hindu mythology, the origin of the festival can be found in the ancient legend of samudra manthan, the legend tells of a battle between the Devas and Asuras for amrita, the drink of immortality. During samudra manthan, or churning of the ocean, amrita was produced and placed in a kumbha, to prevent the asuras from seizing the amrita, a divine carrier flew away with the pot. In one version of the legend, the carrier of the kumbha is the divine physician Dhanavantari, in other re-tellings, the carrier is Garuda, Indra or Mohini, who spills the amrita at four places. While several ancient texts, including the various Puranas, mention the samudra manthan legend, neither do these texts mention the Kumbh Mela. Therefore, multiple scholars, including R. B, bhattacharya, D. P. Dubey and Kama Maclean believe that the samudra manthan legend has been applied to the Kumbh Mela relatively recently, in order to show scriptural authority for it. There are several references to river-side festivals in ancient Indian texts, the Chinese traveler Xuanzang describes a ritual organized by Emperor Shiladitya at the confluence of two rivers, in the kingdom of Po-lo-ye-kia

7. Kakatiya dynasty – The Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty whose capital was Orugallu, now known as Warangal. It was eventually conquered by the Delhi Sultanate, the demise of Kakatiya dynasty resulted in confusion and anarchy under alien rulers for sometime. Three new fledgling kingdoms arose out of the ruins of the Kakatiya empire namely the Reddy kingdom, Padma Nayaka Velama kingdom, historic sources relating to the Kakatiya dynasty are sparse. Of those that are available, the most prevalent are ancient inscriptions that mainly document matters relating to religion and they are particularly abundant for the period 1175–1324 CE, which is the period when the dynasty most flourished and are a reflection of that. The probability is that many inscriptions have been lost due to falling into disuse and also the ravages of subsequent rulers. Inscriptions are still being discovered today but governmental agencies tend to concentrate on recording those that are already known rather than searching for new examples, studies of the inscriptions and coinage by the historian Dineshchandra Sircar reveal that there was no contemporary standard spelling of the family name. Variants include Kakatiya, Kakatiyya, Kakita, Kakati and Kakatya, the family name was often prefixed to the name of the monarch, giving constructs such as Kakatiya-Prataparudra. Some of the also had alternate names, for example, Venkata and Venkataraya may have been alternate names of Prataparuda I. The Kakatiya rulers traced their ancestry to legendary chief or ruler called Durjaya, many other ruling dynasties of Andhra also claimed descent from Durjaya. Nothing further is known about this chief, the early rulers were feudatoris of Western Chalukyas. Prataparudra I established a dynasty in 1163 CE. The regnal dates of the rulers are unknown. In order, they were Venna, Gunda I, Gunda II, Gunda III, the next ruler, Gunda IV, is mentioned in the Mangallu grant of the Eastern Chalukya king Dānārnava in 956 CE. Gunda IV was followed by Beta I, Prola I, Beta II, Durgaraja, next come the sovereign rulers Prataparudra I, Ganapati, Rudrama Devi, and Prataparudra II. The dynasty ended in 1323 after an invasion by the Delhi sultanate, the early Kakatiya rulers used the title Reddi. However, after they became sovereigns they were addressed as deva, there appears to be a significant element of sanskritisation in this transition. According to Sastry, Prataparudra I reigned between around 1158 –1195, while Sircar gives the dates 1163–1195 and it was during Prataparudras reign, in 1163, that the Kakatiyas declared an end to their status as feudatory chiefs of the Chalukyas. It is notable that inscriptions were written using the Kakatiya chiefs vernacular Telugu rather than the Kannada language that had prevailed until that point

8. Warangal – Warangal pronunciation is a city and the district headquarters of Warangal Urban District and Warangal Rural Districts in the Indian state of Telangana. Warangal is the second largest city in Telangana after Hyderabad, spreading across 406.87 km with a population of 811,844. Along with 11 other cities in the country having rich culture and heritage, it has chosen for the HRIDAY – Heritage City Development. Warangal served as the capital of the Kakatiya dynasty which was established in 1163, the monuments left by the Kakatiyas include fortresses, lakes, temples, and stone gateways helped the city to become a significant tourist attraction. The Kakatiya Kala Thoranam was included in the Emblem of Telangana by the state government, the city alomg with its two neighborhoods of Hanamkonda and Kazipet, is often referred as Tri-city. During Kakatiyan rule, the city was referred to as Orugallu and it was also known as Vorakalli, Tolini Koranakula and Akshalinagaram. Aravabinakosam, a work of Ragunatha Bhaskar mentioned Warangal as Ekasilanagaram. Warangal was the ancient capital of kakatiya dynasty, beta Raja I is the founder of Kakatiya Dynasty and ruled the kingdom for 30 years and was succeeded by his son Prola Raja I who shifted his capital to Hanamkonda. During the rule of Ganapathideva, the capital was shifted from Hanamkonda to Warangal, Kakatiya Period Inscriptions praised Warangal as best city within all of Andhra up to shores of the Ocean. The Kakatiyas left many monuments, including a fortress, four massive stone gateways, the Swayambhu temple dedicated to Shiva. The cultural and administrative distinction of the Kakatiyas was mentioned by Marco Polo, after the defeat of Prataparudra II, the Musunuri Nayaks united 72 Nayak chieftains and captured Warangal from Delhi Sultanate and ruled for fifty years. After the demise of the Nayaks, Warangal was part of the Bahmani Sultanate, Hyderabad was annexed to India in 1948, and became an Indian state called as Hyderabad state. In 1956 Hyderabad state was partitioned as part of the States Reorganisation Act, and Telangana, the Telugu-speaking region of Hyderabad state, after the Telangana movement, Telangana state was formed on 2 June 2014, warangal became part of Telangana State. Warangal is located at 18. 0°N79. 58°E /18.0,79.58 and it has an average elevation of 302 metres. It is settled in the part of Deccan Plateau made up of granite rocks. There are no river flows nearby warangal, which makes it to rely on Kakatiya Canal which originates from Sriram Sagar Project to meet the water requirements. Located in the region of Telangana, Warangal has a predominantly hot. Summer starts in March, and peak in May with average temperatures in the 42 °C range

9. Jaggery – Jaggery is a traditional non-centrifugal cane sugar consumed in Asia, Africa and some countries in the Americas. It is a product of date, cane juice, or palm sap without separation of the molasses and crystals. It contains up to 50% sucrose, up to 20% invert sugars, and up to 20% moisture, with the remainder made up of other matter, such as wood ash, proteins. Jaggery is mixed with other ingredients, such as peanuts, condensed milk, coconut, unrefined, it is known by various names, including panela, in other parts of the world. Jaggery is made of the products of sugarcane and the palm tree. The sugar made from the sap of the palm is both more prized and less commonly available outside of the regions where it is made. The date palm is tapped for producing jaggery in West Bengal, South India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, in Sri Lanka, syrup extracts from kithul trees are widely used for jaggery production. This is considered the best jaggery available on the market and is more highly valued than that from other sources. All types of the come in blocks or pastes of solidified concentrated sugar syrup heated to 200 °C. Traditionally, the syrup is made by boiling raw sugarcane juice or palm sap in large, shallow, historically, the sugar cane cultivators used crushers which were ox-driven. Nowadays all the crushers are power-driven and these crushers are located in fields near the sugar crop. The cut and cleaned sugar cane is put into the crusher, the extracted sugar cane juice is collected in a big vessel. A certain quantity of the juice is transferred to a vessel for heating on a furnace. The vessel is heated for about one hour, dried wood pulp from the crushed sugar cane is used as fuel for the furnace. While boiling the juice, some lime is added to it so that all the particles are collected on top of the juice in a froth during boiling which is skimmed off. Finally the juice is thickened and reduced to nearly one- third of the original volume and this hot liquid is golden in color. It is stirred continuously and lifted with a spatula to observe whether it forms a thread or drips dropwise while falling, if it forms many threads, it has completely thickened. Now it is poured into a flat bottomed concrete tank to cool

10. Stream – A stream is a body of water with a current, confined within a bed and banks. Streams are important as conduits in the cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge. The biological habitat in the vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats, the study of streams and waterways in general is known as surface hydrology and is a core element of environmental geography. Brook A stream smaller than a creek, especially one that is fed by a spring or seep and it is usually small and easily forded. A brook is characterised by its shallowness and its bed being composed primarily of rocks, creek In North America, Australia and New Zealand, a small to medium-sized natural stream. Sometimes navigable by motor craft and may be intermittent, in parts of Maryland, New England, the UK and India, a tidal inlet, typically in a salt marsh or mangrove swamp, or between enclosed and drained former salt marshes or swamps. In these cases, the stream is the stream, the course of the seawater through the creek channel at low. River A large natural stream, which may be a waterway, runnel the linear channel between the parallel ridges or bars on a shoreline beach or river floodplain, or between a bar and the shore. Tributary A contributory stream, or a stream which does not reach the sea, sometimes also called a branch or fork. There are a number of names for a stream. Allt is used in Highland Scotland, beck is used in Yorkshire, Lancashire, Dumfriesshire, Cumbria, Norfolk, and Lincolnshire. Bourne or winterbourne is used in the chalk downland of southern England, brook is used in the Midlands, Lancashire and Cheshire. Burn is used in Scotland and North East England, gill or ghyll is seen in the north of England and other areas influenced by Old Norse. Rivulet is an term encountered in Victorian era publications, stream is used in Southern England. Syke is used in lowland Scotland and Cumbria for a seasonal stream, branch is used to name streams in Maryland and Virginia. Falls is also used to name streams in Maryland, for streams/rivers which have waterfalls on them, little Gunpowder Falls and The Jones Falls are actually rivers named in this manner, unique to Maryland. Kill in New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jersey comes from a Dutch language word meaning riverbed or water channel, run in Ohio, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, or West Virginia can be the name of a stream

11. Telangana – Telangana is one of the 29 states in India, located in southern India. Formed in June 2014 as the newest state in India, from the part of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana has an area of 112,077 square kilometres. It is the twelfth largest state in India, and the twelfth most populated state in India and its major cities include Hyderabad, Warangal, Nizamabad, Khammam, Karimnagar and Ramagundam. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north and north west, Chhattisgarh to the north, Karnataka to the west and Andhra Pradesh to the east and south. Telangana had a history as the Telugu-speaking region of the state of Hyderabad. It joined the Union of India in 1948, in 1956, the Hyderabad state was dissolved as part of the linguistic reorganisation of states and Telangana was merged with former Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh. Following a movement for separation, Telangan was awarded separate statehood on 2 June 2014, Hyderabad will continue to serve as the joint capital city for Andhra Pradesh and Telangana for a period of not more than ten years. After Asaf Jahis ceded the Seemandhra region to the British, the rest of the Telugu region retained the name Telingana and the other parts were called Madras Presidencys Circars and Ceded. One of the earliest uses of a similar to Telangana can also be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul, who was called the Tilangani. He was the commander of the Warangal Fort, the Satavahana dynasty became the dominant power in this region. It originated from the lands between the Godavari and Krishna rivers and was based at Amaravathi and Dharanikota, after the decline of the Satavahanas, various dynasties, such as the Vakataka, Vishnukundina, Chalukya, Rashtrakuta and Western Chalukya, ruled the area. The Telangana area experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty, rudrama Devi and Prataparudra II were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty. The dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur in 1309 and was dissolved after the defeat of Prataparudra by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323, the area came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century, followed by the Bahmani Sultanate. Quli Qutb Mulk, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate, on 21 September 1687, the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golkonda fort. In 1712, Qamar-ud-din Khan was appointed by emperor Farrukhsiyar as the viceroy of Deccan with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk and he was later recalled to Delhi, with Mubariz Khan appointed as the viceroy. In 1724, Qamar-ud-din Khan defeated Mubariz Khan to reclaim the Deccan suba and he took the name Asif Jah, starting what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty. He named the area Hyderabad Deccan, subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were called Asif Jahi nizams or nizams of Hyderabad. The Medak and Warangal divisions of Telangana were part of their realm, when Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces

12. Godavari River – The Godavari is the second longest river in India after the river Ganges having its source at Tryambakeshwar, Maharashtra. Measuring up to 312,812 km2, it one of the largest river basins in the Indian subcontinent, with only the Ganges. However, in the past few decades, the river has been abused with relentless construction of barrages and dams. The river delta, supporting 729 persons/km2 – nearly twice the density average for the nation, has been categorized as having substantial risk to greater risk of flooding with rising sea levels. The Godavari originates 80 km from the Arabian Sea in the Western Ghats of central India near Nasik in Maharashtra. The Godavari River has an area of 312,812 km2. The river basin is considered to be divided into 3 sections, Upper, Middle and these put together account for 24. 2% of the total basin area. The rivers annual average water inflows are nearly 110 billion cubic metres, nearly 50% of the water availability is being harnessed. The water allocation from the river among the states are governed by the Godavari Water Disputes Tribunal. The river has highest flood flows in India and experienced recorded flood of 3.6 million cusecs in the year 1986, within Nashik District the river assumes a north-easterly course till it flows into the Gangapur Reservoir created by a dam of the same name. The reservoir along with the Kashypi Dam provides potable water to Nashik, about 25 km below Nasik is the confluence of the Godavari and one of its tributaries, the Darna river. The stream occupies, for nine months in the year, a space in a wide and gravelly bed. A few kilometres after its meeting with the Darna, the Godavari swerves to the north-east, till the Banganga, from the north-west, the course of the main stream then tends more decidedly south. At Nandur-Madhmeshwar, the Kadva, a large affluent, brings considerable increase to the waters of the Godavari. The river begins its southeasterly course characteristic of rivers of the Deccan Plateau, the river beyond exits the Niphad Taluka of Nashik and enter the Kopargaon taluka, Ahmednagar District. Within Ahmednagar the river completes its short course, flowing alongside the town of Kopargaon. By virtue of a sub-tributary of Pravara – Mandohol, which originates in Pune District – the basin impinges the Pune District, the river at Paithan has been impounded by the Jayakwadi Dam forming the NathSagar Reservoir. Kalsubai located in Godavari basin, is the highest peak in Maharashtra, Beed and Jalna Beed and Parbhani, Located along here is its merger with Sindphana, an important tributary which drains a considerably large area within Beed

13. Karimnagar – Karimnagar is a Municipal Corporation and district headquarters of Karimnagar district of Telangana state. It is situated on the banks of Manair River, which is a tributary of the Godavari River. It is the fourth largest and fastest growing settlement in the state. It has registered a growth rate of 45. 46% and 38. 87% respectively over the past two decades between 1991 and 2011, which is highest growth rate among major cities of Telangana. It serves as a educational and health hub for the northern districts of Telangana. It is a business center and widely known for Granite. It has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a city under PM Narendra Modis flagship Smart Cities Mission. During the Nizam era, the name Karimnagar was named for a village by an Elgandal Qiladar, kotilingala in Karimnagar district was the first capital of the Satavahana Kingdom. Formerly known as Sabbinadu, inscriptions dating to the Kakatiya dynasty by kings Prola II and Prataparudra found at Karimnagar, the history of the Karimnagar district began in the Old Stone Age around 1,48,000 BC. Archaeological excavations in Pedda Bonkur, Dhulikatta and Kotilingalu show that the area was ruled by the Satvahanas, Mauryas. City out growths include Bommakal, Arepalle, Alugunur, Chinthakunta, Karimnagar city has a literacy rate of 85. 82%, which is highest urban literacy rate in Telangana state. Karimnagar urban agglomeration has a rate of 84. 93% which is almost equal to the National Urban average of 85%. The literacy rate for males and females for Karimnagar urban region stood at 91. 06% and 78. 69% respectively, Karimnagar experiences dry inland climatic conditions with hot summers and cool winters. The city of Karimnagar gets most of its rainfall from the Southwest monsoon, the summer season is extremely hot, but temperatures decline with the onset of the monsoons, and the winter season is generally cool. The most popular tourist season is from November to February, the summer season starts in March and can continue through early June. During this period range from a minimum of 27 °C to a maximum of 39 °C. The highest recorded temperature in the area is around 44 °C, nights are much cooler, and the humidity is around 50%. October and November experiences increased rainfall from the Northeast monsoon, during this time, daytime temperatures average around 30 °C. The winter season starts in December and lasts through February, during this time, temperatures range from a minimum of 20 °C to a maximum of 35 °C

14. Suryapet – Suryapet /ˈsuːrjɑːpeɪtə/ is a city and the district headquarters of Suryapet district in the Indian state of Telangana. The city has historical recognition as Gate Way of Telangana, Suryapet or Suriapet is located at 17. 1500°N79. 6167°E /17.1500,79.6167. It has an area of 54 square kilometres, chalukyas, Kakatiyas and Nizam dynasties ruled the region. Under the Köppen climate classification, Suryapet experiences Tropical Wet and Dry Climate, winter lasts for only about two-and-a-half months, with seasonal lows dipping to 9–11 °C in December and January. May is the hottest month, with temperatures ranging from 35–43 °C, January. The highest recorded temperature is 51.02 °C, and the lowest is 9 °C, rains brought by the south-west summer monsoon lash Suryapet between June and September, supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of 821.0 mm. The highest total rainfall,180.0 mm, occurs in July. October and November also experiences increased rainfall from the North East Monsoon. Winter season starts in December and lasts through February, temperatures range from a minimum of 18 °C and can reach 33 °C. As of 2011 India census, Suryapet had a metropolitan population of 1,06,524 Suryapet is the most populous city in Suryapet district. Apart from the city population, it has a population of approximately 10,000 from the neighbouring villages daily. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%, Suryapet has an average literacy rate of 84. 88%, higher than the national average of 74.04. %, male literacy is 91. 18%, and female literacy is 78. 74%. In Suryapet, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age, Suryapet municipality was constituted in 1952. It was upgraded to Grade–II in 1984, Grade–I on 7 November 1998, the area of the municipality is spread over an area of 54.00 km2 with 30 wards. The present municipal commissioner is V. Surender and the chairman is Ganduri Pravalika Prakash. Suryapet Municipality became the first waste-compliant city of India in 2003 and it had won Green Leaf Award for Best Garbage Disposal in 2007. It lies on the National Highway 65 and is equidistant from the Hyderabad, Suryapet is a major road junction. TSRTC operates buses from Suryapet to several places

15. Hyderabad – Hyderabad is the capital of the southern Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh. At an average altitude of 542 metres, much of Hyderabad is situated on hilly terrain around artificial lakes, established in 1591 by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, Hyderabad remained under the rule of the Qutb Shahi dynasty for nearly a century before the Mughals captured the region. In 1724, Mughal viceroy Asif Jah I declared his sovereignty and created his own dynasty, the Nizams dominions became a princely state during the British Raj, and remained so for 150 years, with the city serving as its capital. The city continued as the capital of Hyderabad State after it was brought into the Indian Union in 1948, since 1956, Rashtrapati Nilayam in the city has been the winter office of the President of India. In 2014, the formed state of Telangana split from Andhra Pradesh. Relics of Qutb Shahi and Nizam rule remain visible today, the Charminar—commissioned by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah—has come to symbolise Hyderabad, Golconda fort is another major landmark. The influence of Mughlai culture is evident in the regions distinctive cuisine. The Qutb Shahis and Nizams established Hyderabad as a cultural hub, the Telugu film industry based in the city is the countrys second-largest producer of motion pictures. Hyderabad was historically known as a pearl and diamond trading centre, many of the citys traditional bazaars remain open, including Laad Bazaar, Begum Bazaar and Sultan Bazaar. Special economic zones dedicated to technology have encouraged companies from India. The emergence of pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries in the 1990s led to the naming as Indias Genome Valley. With an output of US$74 billion, Hyderabad is the fifth-largest contributor to Indias overall gross domestic product, according to John Everett-Heath, the author of Oxford Concise Dictionary of World Place Names, Hyderabad means Haydars city or lion city, from haydar and ābād. It was named to honour the Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib, andrew Petersen, a scholar of Islamic architecture, says the city was originally called Baghnagar. One popular theory suggests that Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the founder of the city, named it Bhagyanagar or Bhāgnagar after Bhagmati and she converted to Islam and adopted the title Hyder Mahal. The city was renamed Hyderabad in her honour, French traveller Jean de Thévenot visited the Deccan region in 1666–1667 refers to the city in his book Travels in India as Bagnagar and Aiderabad. Archaeologists excavating near the city have unearthed Iron Age sites that may date from 500 BCE, the region comprising modern Hyderabad and its surroundings was known as Golkonda, and was ruled by the Chalukya dynasty from 624 CE to 1075 CE. The Kakatiya dynasty was reduced to a vassal of the Khilji dynasty in 1310 after its defeat by Sultan Alauddin Khilji of the Delhi Sultanate and this lasted until 1321, when the Kakatiya dynasty was annexed by Malik Kafur, Allaudin Khiljis general. During this period, Alauddin Khilji took the Koh-i-Noor diamond, which is said to have mined from the Kollur Mines of Golkonda

16. Bullock cart – A bullock cart or ox cart is a two-wheeled or four-wheeled vehicle pulled by oxen. It is a means of transportation used since ancient times in many parts of the world and they are still used today where modern vehicles are too expensive or the infrastructure does not favor them. Used especially for carrying goods, the cart is pulled by one or several oxen. The cart is attached to a team by a special chain attached to yokes. The driver and any other passengers sit on the front of the cart, traditionally the cargo was usually agrarian goods and lumber. The invention of the used in India transportation most likely took place in Europe. Evidence of wheeled vehicles appears from the mid 4th millennium BC near-simultaneously in the Northern Caucasus, the earliest vehicles may have been ox carts. In Australia, bullock carts were referred to as bullock drays and were used to carry large loads. Drays were pulled by teams which could consist of 20 or more animals. Bullock teams were used extensively to produce from rural areas to major towns. Because of Australias size, these journeys often covered large distances and could take many days, Costa Rican parades and traditional celebrations are not complete without a traditional ox cart parade. In 1988, the ox cart was declared as National Symbol of Work by the Costa Rican government. In 2005, the Oxherding and Oxcart Traditions in Costa Rica were included in UNESCOs Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. In Indonesia, bullock carts are used in the rural parts of the country. But it is common in Indonesia that there are horsecars. In Indonesia, ox cart driver called a bajingan, bullock carts were widely used in Malaysia before the introduction of automobiles, and many are still used today. These included passenger vehicles, now used especially for tourists, passenger carts are usually equipped with awnings for protection against sun and rain, and are often gaily decorated

17. Telangana State Road Transport Corporation – Telangana State Road Transport Corporation is a state-owned company that runs transport services within the Indian state of Telangana. It was formed in 2014 by splitting the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation, many other Indian metro towns in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Goa, Odisha and Chhattisgarh are also linked with the services of TSRTC. It serves about 89.4 lakh passengers every day, having three zones and Services operating through 95 depots. Road transport corporation in Telangana State was first established as NSRRTD, Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation was established on 11 January 1958 in pursuance of the Road Transport Corporations Act 1950. Consequent upon bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh state into Telangana and residual Andhra Pradesh, the Government of Telangana has subsequently established Telangana State Road Transport Corporation, on 27.04.2016, under the Road Transport Corporation Act,1950. TSRTC has three zones, Hyderabad, Greater Hyderabad and Karimnagar and it has 13 regions,95 depots and 357 bus stations. TSRTC buses undertake operations on 3,687 routes, having a fleet of 10,460 under its wing. TSRTC operates various kinds of services catering to the needs of people from all walks of life connecting villages towns, TSRTC brands its services based on the level of comfort. Air conditioned buses are branded Vennela, Garuda Plus, Garuda, Vennela is the most expensive and comfortable service operated by TSRTC. Vennela translates to moon in Telugu and these are Isuzu buses fabricated by JCBL with sleeper berths arranged perpendicular to the body similar to a first class train. Each berth has its own LED TV with pre-loaded movies, value added services include a 500ml water bottle, facial wipes and blanket. There are currently only three Vennela buses in TSRTC, all of them are operated to Bengaluru out of Picket depot in Secunderabad. TSRTC operates Multi axle buses of Mercedes-Benz, Volvo and Scania make as Garuda Plus buses, designed for superior ride quality, these buses have reclining seats. Few old buses also have calf rests, there are two/three led TV s in each bus with pre loaded movies depending on the make. As in Vennela, passengers are given a 500ml water bottle, blanket, TSRTC operates Garuda plus buses on long distance interstate routes. TSRTC operates bi-axle buses of Volvo and Isuzu make as Garuda, there have been no additions to the fleet since 2009 apart from a few Vennela which were downgraded as Garuda. This class of service will be phased out slowly, TSRTC operates AC buses built on Ashok Leylands 12M Viking chassis as Rajadhani. Introduced in 2011, these buses were branded as Indra

18. Government of Telangana – Government of Telangana is a democratically elected body that governs the State of Telangana, India. The state government is headed by the Governor of Telangana as the head of state. The governor who is appointed for five years appoints the chief minister, the state government maintains its capital at Hyderabad and is seated at the Government Secretariat or the Sachivalayam. The Government of Telangana was formed on 2 June 2014 after bifurication of Andhra Pradesh as part of Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act,2014. The Governor is the head and the Chief Minister is head of the government who also heads the council of ministers. The Chief Justice of the high court is the head of the judiciary. The Governor is appointed by the President for a term of five years, the executive and legislative powers lie with the Chief Minister and his council of ministers, who are appointed by the Governor. The Governors of the states and territories of India have similar powers, only Indian citizens above 35 years of age are eligible for appointment. Ekkadu Srinivasan Lakshmi Narasimhan has been the present governor since 2 June 2014, the Governor enjoys many different types of powers, Executive powers related to administration, appointments and removals. Legislative powers related to lawmaking and the state legislature, discretionary powers to be carried out according to the discretion of the Governor. The legislature comprises the governor and the assembly, which is the highest political organ in state. The governor has the power to summon the assembly or to close the same, all members of the legislative assembly are directly elected, normally once in every five years by the eligible voters who are above 18 years of age. The current assembly consists of 119 elected members and one nominated by the governor from the Anglo-Indian Community. The elected members one of its own members as its chairman who is called the speaker. The speaker is assisted by the deputy speaker who is elected by the members. The conduct of meeting in the house is the responsibility of the Speaker, the main function of the assembly is to pass laws and rules. Every bill passed by the house has to be approved by the governor before it becomes applicable. Like all other High Courts of India, this court also consists of a Chief Justice, every judge including the Chief Justice is appointed by the President of India by Warrant under his hand and seal. Like in other Indian states, the Executive arm of the state is responsible for the management of the state

19. Hindu temple – A temple is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. It is typically used for such buildings belonging to all faiths where a specific term such as church. These include Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism among religions with many modern followers, the form and function of temples is thus very variable, though they are often considered by believers to be in some sense the house of one or more deities. Typically offerings of some sort are made to the deity, and other rituals enacted, the degree to which the whole population of believers can access the building varies significantly, often parts or even the whole main building can only be accessed by the clergy. Temples typically have a building and a larger precinct, which may contain many other buildings. The word comes from Ancient Rome, where a templum constituted a sacred precinct as defined by a priest and it has the same root as the word template, a plan in preparation of the building that was marked out on the ground by the augur. Templa also became associated with the places of a god or gods. Hindu temples are large and magnificent with a rich history, there is evidence of use of sacred ground as far back as the Bronze Age and later the Indus Valley Civilization. Hindu temples have been built in countries around the world, including Cambodia, Nepal, Mauritius, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Great Britain. They include the structures called stupa, wat and pagoda in different regions, Temples in Buddhism represent the pure land or pure environment of a Buddha. Traditional Buddhist temples are designed to inspire inner and outer peace, a Jain temple is the place of worship for Jains, the followers of Jainism. Some famous Jain temples are Shikharji, Palitana Jain Temples, Ranakpur Jain Temple, Shravan Belgola, Dilwara Temples, Jain temples are built with various architectural designs. Jain temples in North India are completely different from the Jain temples in South India, additionally, a Manastambha is a pillar that is often constructed in front of Jain temples. The temple of Mesopotamia derived from the cult of gods and deities in the Mesopotamian religion and it spanned several civilizations, from Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian. Ancient Egyptian temples were meant as places for the deities to reside on earth, indeed, the term the Egyptians most commonly used to describe the temple building, ḥwt-nṯr, means mansion of a god. A gods presence in the temple linked the human and divine realms and these rituals, it was believed, sustained the god and allowed it to continue to play its proper role in nature. They were therefore a key part of the maintenance of maat, maintaining maat was the entire purpose of Egyptian religion, and thus it was the purpose of a temple as well. Ancient Egyptian temples were also of significance to Egyptian society

20. Temples of Telangana – The following is a list of temples in Telangana, Yadagirigutta, Lord Vishnu. The main deity is Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy, in Ancient days Sri Yada Maharshi son of Sri Rushyashrunga Maharshi with the Blessings of Anjaneya Swamy had performed great penance for Lord Narasimha Swamy. As such this is known as Pancha Narasimha Kshetram, Bhadrachalam Lord Sree Sita Ramachandra Swamy Temple in Bhadrachalam, Khammam District. Raja Rajeswara temple, Vemulawada, Notable for the Sri Raja Rajeshwara Swamy Temple complex, built by Chalukya Kings between AD750 and 975, the complex is named for its presiding deity Sri Raja Rajeswara Swamy, an incarnation of Lord Shiva. It houses several temples dedicated to deities including Sri Rama, Lakshmana, Lakshmi, Ganapathy, Lord Padmanabha Swamy. The complex also contains a 400-year-old mosque, the temple is located in Karimnagar District. Basara, Gnana Saraswati Temple is located on the banks of the river Godavari in NIRMAL District, Kaleswaram, Kaleswaram Temple is located in Kaleshwaram is a village in Mahadevpur Mandal in Karimnagar district in the Indian state of Telangana. Dharmapuri, Dharmapuri attained religious importance owing to the existence of the dedicated to Narasimha Swamy. According to the folklore, the temple was constructed by a cowherd some 300 years ago. Located in Karimnagar District, alampur, Jogulamba temple is located in the South-East corner of the village beside Tungabhadra river. Old temple of Jogulamba was destroyed by Bahamani sultans in the 14th century, the idols of Jogulamba and her two shaktis Chandi, Mundi were protected from them and placed in Bala brahmeswara swammy temple until 2005. The new temple constructed in the place and the goddess was relocated. Hemachala Lakshmi Narsimha Swamy Temple is the most ancient architectural divine ensemble which is located on the Mallur Ghat in the Mangapeta mandal of Warangal district and it is 17 km from Mehedipatnam. It is one of the oldest temples in Hyderabad built during the time of Madanna and Akkanna, ramappa Temple, A Shiva temple located in the temple town of Palampet, near Warangal. Thousand Pillars Temple, A Shiva temple at Hanmakonda, in Warangal, Bhadrakali Temple, Warangal known to be one of the oldest temples for Goddess Bhadrakali, located in Warangal. Komrelly Mallanna Temple, Komuravelli Mallikarjuna Swamy Temple located in Komuravelly Village, Wargal Saraswati Temple, Sri Vidya Saraswati Temple located in Wargal,47 km from Secunderabad, Medak District. Sanghi Temple, Lord Venkateswara Temple located in Sanghi Nagar, Near Ramoji Film City, Sri Stambhadri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy temple is located in the heart of the City of Khammam. The city gets its name from the Stambhadri hill on which the temple is located. The ancient deity is located inside a cave on top of the hill. The temple is believed to be existing since Tretha yuga. GarlavodduSri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple located in Enkuru village which is 45 km from Khammam City and this is one of the famous Temples in Khammam District

21. Adilabad district – Adilabad district is a district located in the northern region of the Indian state of Telangana. It is the district to the South India. Adilabad is the seat of the district. The district is currently a part of the Red Corridor, there are a handful of Telugu inscriptions found in Adilabad District during Kakatiya rule. The original name of the Adilabad was Edlabad during the rule of Qutub Shahis, the dense forests and river Godavari basin of Adilabad district flourished as pre-historic settlements related to Stone Age, Mesolithic and Neolithic cultures. Explorations and excavations at the areas of Luxettipet, Asifabad, Boath, Bhainsa and Nirmal yielded pre-. Due to the districts re-organisation in October 2016, the district was carved out to three new districts of Asifabad district, Mancherial district and Nirmal district. Adilabad district occupies an area of 4,153 square kilometres, as of 2011 Census of India, the district has a population of 708,972. Religions Badankurti village in Khanapur mandal of Adilabad district was explored, the town of Bhainsa, probably related to early Buddhist times, as a pair of carved feet near a mound were found. Languages Different tribes in the include, Adivasis, Gonds, Kolams, Pardhans. In 2006, the Indian government named Adilabad as one of the 250 most backward districts in the country and it is one of the districts in Telangana currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. The district has two divisions of Adilabad and Utnoor. These are sub-divided into 18 mandals, buddha Prakash is the present collector of the district. The below table categorises 52 mandals into their respective divisions in the district

22. Gnana Saraswati Temple, Basar – Gnana Saraswati Temple is a Hindu temple of Goddess Saraswati located on the banks of Godavari River at Basar, Telangana, India. It is one of the two famous Saraswati temples in India, the other being in Jammu & Kashmir, Saraswati is the Hindu Goddess of knowledge and learning. Children are brought to the temple for the ceremony called as Akshara abyasam. Basar is a town in the Nirmal district in the state of Telangana. It is about 30 km from Bhainsa,15.5 km from Dharmabad,34.8 km from Nizamabad,70 km from district headquarters Nirmal, and 205 km from Hyderabad. According to Mahabharatha, Maharishi Vyas and his disciples and sage Viswamitra decided to settle down in a cool, in the quest for a peaceful abode, he came to Dandaka forest and, pleased with serenity of the region, selected this place. Since Maharishi Vyasa spent considerable time in prayers, the place was then called Vasara and it is also believed that this temple is one of the three temples constructed near the confluence of the Manjira and Godavari rivers. Historically, Bijialudu a Karnataka king, who ruled the province of Nandagiri with Nanded as his capital in the sixth century, many pilgrims come to Gnana Saraswati Temple Basar to perform the Akshara abhyasam ceremony for the children before they start formal school education. The children perform the exercise of letters, and devote books, pens, the Puja at the temple starts at 4 am in morning with Abhishekam which carries on for an hour. At 5 oclock they start the Alankarana whereby the new sarees are adorned to the goddesses, the whole atmosphere is very pious and pure. At 6 am, in the rays of the morning sun, special poojas and celebrations are held at the temple during Maha Shivaratri, beginning 15 days before and continuing 3 days after the festival. Devi Navarathrulu is celebrated for ten days during Dasara, the temple also has a Mahakali idol situated on the 1st floor very near to the main temple. Devotees often go to the mountain which has an Idol of Goddess Saraswati on the top of the rock. The image of Lakshmi stands besides the Goddess Saraswati in the sanctum sanctorum, due to the presence of Saraswati, Lakshmi and Kali, Basara is considered as the abode of the divine trinity. The temple is located about 210 kilometers from the nearest city Hyderabad and it is well connected by district buses, run by TSRTC. The nearest railway station to the temple is Basar Railway Station, trains that go to Basar Railway station, List of Hindu temples in India Wikimapia BasaraTemple. org

23. Hyderabad district, India – Hyderabad District is a district in the state of Telangana in India that contains a part of the metropolitan area of Hyderabad. It is headed by a collector who is drawn from the IAS cadre and is appointed by the state government. It is the smallest of all the districts in the state, the district is a city district which means that it does not have a district headquarters. Old MCH area, which is region of Hyderabad city comes under this district. Hyderabad district was formed in 1948 after Police Action by merging Atraf-a-Balda District, Baghat was previously a Taluk in Atraf-e-Balda District, and was made a separate district in 1931-34 under the subedar of Medak division. In 1978 Hyderabad district was split into Hyderabad Urban District. Hyderabad rural district was renamed as Ranga Reddy District. Hyderbad Urban district is now known as Hyderabad district, Hyderabad 6.81 million According to 2011 census. Hyderabad District includes the area of the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, Secunderabad Cantonment, Lalaguda, there are 16 administrative areas called mandals in Hyderabad. They are, Rahul Bojja is the present collector of the district, Hyderabad district comprises 15 Assembly constituencies in the core of the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation. Hyderabad district occupies an area of approximately 217 square kilometres, in the 2011 census Hyderabad districts population was 3,943,323, with a religious make-up of, Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Jains, Sikhs and Buddhists,1. 58% did not state any religion. Roughly equal to the nation of Liberia or the US state of Oregon and this gives it a ranking of 57th in India. The district has a density of 18,480 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 4. 71%, Hyderabad has a sex ratio of 943 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 80. 96%. The collectorate administers the district on behalf of the state government, representatives are popularly elected to various wards of GHMC. Hyderabad new district map with villages and mandals list 2016 Official website

24. Ashtalakshmi Temple, Hyderabad – Ashtalakshmi Temple is a popular Hindu temple of Goddesses Ashtalakshmi in Hyderabad, India. This magnificent temple dedicated to Goddess Lakshmi stands distinctly on the outskirts of the city, amidst value the varied Islamic architectural monuments in the area, this temple has a different style — a touch of south Indian architecture. Among the Hindu pantheon, the Goddess of wealth, Lakshmi, finds a place in the hearts of the people for she brings prosperity. But very few temple have Goddess Lakshmi in her eight splendorous forms, built under the auspices of the Kanchi Kamakoti Peetam, the temple was consecrated in April 1996. It is one of its kind in the state of Telangana and this temple is located between Dilsukh Nagar and LB Nagar, in Vasavi Colony near Kothapet. Its very famous The design and architecture of the Ashtalakshmi temple was borrowed from the one at Chennai, however, several modifications were made while the construction was initiated. The Ashtalakshmi temple is an example of a collective endeavor. People from many quarters came forward to donate liberally and it took five years of non-stop work and a total expenditure of Rs 10 million for the magnificent Ashtalakshmi temple to take its present form. Ganapati Sthapathi, and M. Mathiyalagan Sthapathi conceived the structure, about 134 vigrahams of lesser-known gods adorn the mahagopuram. Although built of sand and cement, the Ashtalakshmi temple reveals the remarkable dexterity of the artists, installed inside are idols of Adilakshmi, Aishwaryalakshmi, Santanalakshmi, Dhanalakshmi, Dhanyalakshmi, Gajalakshmi, Vijayalakshmi and Varalakshmi. Depicting these eight postures, the idols are adorned with gold and kasula Peru necklace, if one is all praise for the richly ornamented idols inside the temple, one is equally agog to see the intricately carved designs on the temple gopuram. Proposals are in the offing to construct a two-storeyed Kalyana Mandapam at a cost of Rs 15 million, the nightly illumination of this enchanting temple is spectacular. Viewed from a distance, it looks like its made from marble, and on approaching the temple entrance, one is captivated by the tranquility of the surroundings and the all-pervading sweet fragrance of the incense

25. Birla Mandir, Hyderabad – Birla Mandir is a Hindu temple, built on a 280 feet high hillock called Naubath Pahad on a 13 acres plot. The construction took 10 years and was opened in 1976 by Swami Ranganathananda of Ramakrishna Mission, the temple was constructed by Birla Foundation, which has also constructed several similar temples across India, all of which are known as Birla Mandir. The temple manifests a blend of Dravidian, Rajasthani and Utkala architectures and it is constructed of 2000 tons of pure white marble. The granite idol of presiding deity Lord Venkateswara is about 11 ft tall, there is a brass flagstaff in the temple premises which rises to a height of 42 ft. The temple does not have bells, as Swami Ranganathananda wished that the temple atmosphere should be conducive for meditation. Apart from the shrine, the consorts of Lord Venkateswara, Padmavati. The temple also has shrines for various Hindu gods and goddess including Shiva, Shakti, Ganesh, Hanuman, Brahma, Saraswati, Lakshmi. Selected teachings of men and Gurbani are engraved on temple walls. Birla temples are open to all, as identified by Mahatma Gandhi, Birla Mandir is well connected by TSRTC buses and MMTS. The nearest MMTS station is Lakdi ka pul, bus No, 5K, 5S,5 From Secunderabad to Mehadipatnam any bus no.113 from Uppal to Mehadipatnam List of tourist attractions in Hyderabad Birla Mandir Hyderabad Tourism Birla Mandir  

26. Jagannath Temple, Hyderabad – The Jagannath Temple in Hyderabad, India is a modern temple built by the Odia community of the city of Hyderabad dedicated to the Hindu God Jagannath. The temple located near Banjara hills Road no.12 in Hyderabad is famous for its annual Rathyatra festival attended by thousands of devotees, Jagannath means Lord of the Universe. The temple which was constructed during 2009 recently lies in Center of Hyderabad City and it is said that this is a replica of original Jagannath Temple of Puri in context of design. The most attracting portion of this temple is its Shikhara measuring around 70 feet in height, the red color of the temple is due to the usage of sand stone and around 60 stone carvers got the blessing to carve this temple. There are shrines dedicated to Lakshmi, along with Shiva, Ganesh, Hanuman, the amorous sculptures are also found to represent the innermost feelings of human being and this explains to keep them outside the temple always while entering. The sanctum sanctorum houses Lord Jagannath along with his siblings, Lord Balabhadra, Jagannath in Andhra Pradesh Jagannath temple at hyderabad

27. Karmanghat Hanuman Temple – Karmanghat Hanuman Temple is located at Karman ghat, closer to Sagar Ring Road, it is a temple of Lord Hanuman. It is one of the oldest temples in the city and it was built in the 12th century A. D. When a Kakatiya king went hunting and was resting under a tree, wondering who it was in the middle of a dense forest, he discovered a stone idol of Lord Hanuman, in seated posture and the voice coming from the vigraha. Having paid his respects, he returned to his capital, the temple was built immediately and successive kings ruled it well. About 400 years later, Aurangzeb sent out his armies to all corners of the country for further expansion of Mughal Empire, at this temple, the army couldnt even step close to the compound wall. When the general reported this to Aurangzeb, he went with a crow bar to break down the temple. At the threshold of the temple, he heard a deafening roar rumbling like thunder, then he heard a voice in the heavens Mandir todna hai rajan, to kar man ghat which is why the place got the name kar-man-ghat. And to this day, Lord Anjaneya sits peacefully meditating and blessing devotees, the temple is very popular among devotees in Hyderabad especially during Hanuman Jayanti

28. Ujjaini Mahakali Temple – Sri Ujjaini Mahakali Temple is a temple in Malkajgiri, India at Old Malkajgiri built by Surati Appayya. Area in Telangana which is 191 years old, devotees offer prayers to the goddess every day. In particular, Lakhs of devotees in Ashada Jathara pray on principal days and it is also popular during the festival of Bonalu

29. Akkanna Madanna Temple

Medaram "Samakka Sarakka" Jatara - A Tribal Festival

Medaram "Samakka Sarakka" Jatara :-


Sammakka Sarakka is a huge festival of Telangana people that marks the fight of Sammakka and Saralamma (a mother and daughter) with the powerful rulers against an unfair law. It is a 3 days festival starts at Medaram in Tadvai mandal that held once in 2 years. It is a major festival/Jatara after kumbh mela that attracts millions of people all over the country. 

The population of the little forest village at Medaram in normal times never exceeds 300. Suddenly, during the month of February it rises to over 3500000! Millions of devotees come from all over Andhra Pradesh and neighbouring states like Orissa, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.

Medaram jatara begins on the fullmoon day also known as suddha poornima day of the Magha masam. It is January-February months that coincide with Magha month of Hindu lunar calendar. The tribal deity Saralamma or Sarakka would be brought from Kannepoyinapalle village to the jatara venue. The next day another deity Sammakka, considered to be mother of Saralamma, will be brought from the adjoining Chilakalagutta. The deities after brought to the venue, are traditionally installed on a platform under a tree, called 'Gaddi' (raised platform or the throne). 

Coconut and jaggery are the main offerings to the deities, though animal sacrifice is a common phenomenon at the jatara. Some of the devotees who vowed to offer 'Niluvetthu Bangaram' meaning gold weighing equivalent to their personal weight, offer same weight of jaggery as a substitute for the gold. 

After Kumbha Melas, it is the Medaram jatara or Sammkka-Saralakka jatara that attracts large number of tribals, non tribals to get congregated at one place. This fair festivity is held once in two years (bi-annually) with more than ten million people taking part. 

Until 1998, the only way to reach Medaram was by a bullock cart. In 1998 the state government declared the 1000-yr old festival as official and laid down a motorable road.

The undeterred resolve, honesty, uprightness and courage of two Girijan women, Sammakka and Saralamma, pitted against the might of cruel kind, symbolizing in short the spirit of the girijans in the face of odds, forms the sprit of the bi-annual Sammakka Saralamma jathara held in forests of Medaram in Eturnagaram mandal in Warangal district. This is the biggest Girijan festival held here. Medaram is a small village in the forest. Here Sammakka Jathara is celebrated once in two years on a very large - scale for three days before Magha Purnima Sammakka is a tribal goddess and the patrons and the priests are Koyas (A caste in tribals). All the tribals of Mulugu area and the thousands of other Hindus congregate there during the celebrations. There is no permanent idol of the deity. 

A 50-acre forest expanse would be used for the purpose, which is situated 110 km from the Warangal district headquarters on the banks of river. The jathara begins on Magha shuddha Purnima and continues for four days. 
Offerings are made to the goddesses with jaggery. About four lakh devotees worshipped the deities in the 1996 jathara. Though the State government realized the importance in 1952, it did not take any concrete measures to popularize it till 1982. 

This is installed on an earthen platform raised under a tree. Animals are sacrificed and vows are redeemed, intoxicants are widely used. Hundreds of people who are often possessed by the goddess come there dancing ecstatically throughout their journey. The special offering to the deity is jaggery, which collects, in huge piles. Those who fulfill vows offer jaggery equal to their weight and jaggery is distributed as prasadam. More than 2lakh of people congregate every day. They came in motorized vehicles, bullock carts, on foot in thousands causing an unprecedented traffic jam from Medaram whose tail could be traced 26 km away towards Warangal. 


Men and women attired in their best and many swathed in turmeric turned up for the jathara. For tribal youth, it was a no-holds-barred celebration. They reached the Sammakka Sarakka "gaddhelu'' (platform) dancing to the tune of drums with gay abandon while elderly people tried their best to have darshan. A large number of tribal men and women behaved as if "possessed'' by the tribal goddesses. 

People believe that Goddesses Sammakka, Saralamma fulfill their desires with their divine and miraculous powers. Issueless Couples visit to pray the goddess to bless them with children. Many pilgrim pay their promises made to goddess during the Jathara, by offering Jaggery, calf's, coconuts and donations in cash etc. Pilgrim bath in the Jampanna stream to get purified and absolve from sins.


History, Mythology and practices:-

According to a tribal story, about 6-7 centuries ago, a group of Koya Indians traveling through the dandakaaranya found a little girl playing with tigers. The head of the tribe adopted and named her Sammakka.  She married the headman of a neighboring village. Saaralamma was her daughter.  The Koya Indians were a tributary to the Kakatiyas, who ruled the country of Andhra from Warangal City between 1000 AD and 1380 AD.  Once, the Koyas assisted the Kakatiyas in a war.  After sometime, there was a severe drought that lasted for years and as a result the mighty Godavari River dried up.  Koyas didn’t have even food to eat.  However, the Kakatiyas insisted on the payment of taxes.   The Kakatiya emperor sent his forces to teach the Koyas a lesson and collect taxes and the Koyas had no option but to resist.  After a bitter war, the Kakatiya Prime Minister visited war ravaged Koya kingdom. By then most of the Koya chiefs had fallen in battle.  The Prime Minister proposed peace and offered Sammakka a place in the emperor’s harem as the chief queen.  Samakka turned down the offer and resolved to continue the fight to avenge the dead.  The battle continued and Samakka was wounded.  Samakka told her people that as long as they remembered her, she would protect them.  Then, she cursed the Kaktiya dynasty to perish and disappeared into the deep forest. The Koyas searched for their queen and found only a red ochre box, her bangles and the pug-marks of a huge tigress.  Soon after, Muslim invaders destroyed the Kakatiya dynasty.  Since then, the Koyas, Waddaras and other Indian tribes and castes have been holding festivals in memory of Sammakka and Saralamma regularly. 

There is no permanent idol of the deity.   It is said that a Koya boy who gets a vision before the festival, searches in the forest for a week without food and sleep and finally brings the goddesses in the farm of two vermilion caskets tied to a piece of bamboo, one representing the main deity Sammakka and the other her daughter Saarakka or Saaralamma. The actual festival begins in the month of Magha, on Suddha Pournami (full moon day) evening when Saaralamma would be traditionally brought from Kanneboyinapalle, a village in the forest, and installed on a gaddi (the throne or platform), an earthen platform raised under a tree.  Animals are sacrificed and intoxicants such as liquor are widely used. 

Hundreds of people who are often possessed by the goddess come there dancing ecstatically throughout their journey.  The special offering to the deity is jaggery.  Some offer jaggery equal to their weight and distribute.  It is a rare opportunity to witness some ancient practices especially pabba, Shiva sathi (sathi means lady) and Lakshmi Devaras.  Shiva sathis are women who go into trance and bless the childless women to have children and the process of that blessing is called pabba.  The belief is that those who had the blessings of Sammakka-Saralamma through the words of Shiva sathis would have children.  Children get their heads tonsured. Young girls accompanied by their parents performed special prayers with the help of Shiva sathis and Lakshmi Devaras to get suitable husbands. 

On the special day - Maghasudha pournami :-

The actual festival begins in the month of Magha, on Sudha Pournami (full moon day) evening when Sarakka (in the form of a vermilion) would be traditionally brought from Kanneboyinapalle, a  neibhouring  village in the forest, and placed on a gadde, an earthen platform raised under a tree. 

By next sunset,the main goddess Sammakka (in the form of a vermilion) will be brought  from Chilukalagutta. There are two gaddes (platforms) Separately one for goddess "Sammakka" and other for goddess "Sarakka".  They are represented by bamboo sticks smeared with turmeric and vermilion (Pasupu and Kunkuma). Since time immemorial, there is a huge tree standing on Sammakka gadde. 



When the priests bring out the ochre box and other relics from a hidden forest location, there is great tumult with frenzied beating of drums, blowing of trumpets and full throated yells. It is said that during the festival a huge tiger prowls around peacefully. Offerings are coconuts and jaggery. They are piled at the foot of the trees..



On Festival day:-

This tiny village located in the thick forest area witness surging crowds start a week before the festival. Hundreds of private and Govt vehicles will be engaged in transporting countless number of pilgrims flocking the venue of historic Sammakka Sarakka jatara site. The Gaddelu, the sanctum sanctorum of this jatara site, will be filled to maximum and the devotees continue to throng the venue. The whole of Medaram village will be lit up for the celebrations. Hundreds of shops and petty business enterprises come up all over. The pilgrims will be  seen spread over 9 km around the venue. Temporary dwellings  spring up presenting a spectacular sight.

How to Distance Medaram Sammakka saralamma jathara Temple:-

Hyderabad

Warangal

145 km

Chennai

Warangal

730 km

Nagpur

Warangal

450 km

Vijayawada

Warangal

237 km

Visakhapatnam

Warangal

520 Km

Nizamabad

Warangal

232 Km

Tirupathi

Warangal

652 Km

Warangal

Medaram

90 Km

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