1 Kigamuro

## Creating a Works Cited Page

The purpose of the Works Cited page is to collect all of the sources used in a text and to arrange them so they are easy for your reader to locate. Listing the sources also helps you track them and makes it less likely that you might accidentally plagiarize by forgetting to mention a piece of source material.

## Setting up the Page

• Works Cited is located at the end of a paper. Always start it at the top of a new page.
• Title it Works Cited, even if there is only a single source listed.
• Center the title at the topmost point on the page.
• The Works Cited page uses the same formatting as the rest of the paper: 12 point standard font, double spacing, 1” margins on all sides, etc.
• List sources alphabetically, according to whatever comes first in each citation. (Do not list them in the order they occur within the paper.)
• Use “hanging” paragraphs to set up sources. This means that the first line of each source begins at the left margin, while second and subsequent lines are indented by ½” (1 tab). This is the reverse of a regular paragraph. The “hanging” format makes it easily to visually scroll down the list and see each source. If you are using Microsoft Word, you can set hanging paragraphs by choosing the “hanging” setting in the “Paragraphs” menu.

Here’s an annotated example of a Works Cited page (click here to open in a new page, or visit our resource site at theword4instructors.wordpress.com and search for “Annotated Works Cited Examples”):

## Creating Entries on the Works Cited Page

The newest version of MLA—version 8—came out during the winter of 2016 and promises to be the citation style of the electronic age. Rather than the previous method, which involved creating a separate style for each different kinds of source (and was very time-intensive), it created a single template (see the link provided below) to be used for all types of source materials.

Let’s look at how to set up Works Cited citations. We’ll work through one, and then I’ll add some details.

We’ll work with this article from The Atlantic (found at theatlantic.com): “The Importance of High School Mentors.”

Open the MLA template, too: https://style.mla.org/files/2016/04/practice-template.pdf

To use the template, start at the top and fill in information about the source. If there are lines in the template you can’t fill in, we simply leave them blank. Note that on the template, each item is followed with specific punctuation. Copy these as you create your own citations.

### Author.

Enter the author’s name on line 1 of the template.

• The first author’s name is always reversed: Last Name, First Name.
• It is in plain font and (as you’ll note in the template) is followed with a period.

Here’s what you should have on line 1:

Sebenius, Alyza.

### Title of Source.

This is the name of the material you’re working with.

• Capitalize all words in the title of source except for articles, conjunctions, and prepositions.
• If it is an article, essay, chapter, or any other “small” piece of material, it will be in quotation marks and plain font.
• If it is a book, film, periodical, or an entire web page, it will be in italic font with no quotation marks.
• The title of source is followed with a period—and when quotation marks are used, note that the period always goes inside the quotation marks (see below).

Here’s what should be on line 2:

“The Importance of High School Mentors.”

### Title of Container,

The container is the “place” that holds or houses the source you’re using. For example:

A book chapter (the “title of source”) is held within a book (the “container”).

A newspaper article (the “title of source”) is held within a newspaper (the “container”).

An essay on a web page (the “title of source”) is held within a website (the “container”).

A magazine article (the “title of source”) is held within a magazine (the “container”).

(And so forth)

• The container is almost always* in italic font and followed by a comma.
• Capitalize it fully.

*An example of a non-italicized container would be if you were citing an actual painting and the “container” was an art museum. The museum would be listed as the container but in plain font.

You have two options for the container in this case; either would be correct:

The Atlantic,

theatlantic.com,

### Other Contributors,

This line provides a way to mention people who assisted with creating or handling the source, e.g., directors, translators, performers, illustrators, etc.

• List them using plain, unabbreviated language, e.g., performed by, directed by, etc.
• Other contributors are listed in plain font and followed with a comma.

Our article has no “other contributors,” and so we would leave this blank, skipping it. When you hit sections of the template where you have no information, just skip them and move on.

### Version,

Use this if you want to mention an edition number (e.g., Second Edition, Evening Edition, etc.) or if you want to list a volume (Volume 3), a month (January), etc.

• Version is written in plain font and followed by a comma.

Our article has no version, so we’ll leave line 5 blank.

### Number,

Use this to provide an issue number (e.g., for a magazine or journal), a special archive number (e.g., with museum pieces), or something similar.

• Number is in plain font and followed by a comma.

Our article has no number, so we’ll leave line 6 blank.

### Publisher,

The publisher is the person or institution that makes the source available to the world.

• Publishers for books, periodicals, and printed materials are usually written on one of the first pages.
• Web page publishers can usually be found at the page bottom. If you cannot find the publisher quickly, you might use Google to search for it, i.e., searching ‘New York Times Publisher.’
• Film and music publishers will usually be located on the material.
• Write out the complete publisher name; capitalize it fully and don’t abbreviate or omit words.
• The publisher is in plain font and followed by a comma.

If we scroll to the page bottom, we find our publisher for line 7:

The Atlantic Monthly Group,

### Publication date,

This is the date of the “title of source” (see line 2).

• Use MLA date format: day month year
• Follow the date with a comma.
• With longer months, you may abbreviate the source; if you do, follow the abbreviation with a period.

We could use either of these options for our source:

13 January 2016,

13 Jan. 2016,

### Location.

The source’s location tells the reader where to find the source. Many sources will not have a location, but it should be listed if present.

• If using a book, the page number is the location.
• For single pages, use this format: p. 6.
• For two or more pages, list like this: pp. 62-4 or pp. 184-96.
• If using two or more pages and they cross a “hundred” marker, list like this: pp. 456-502.
• With web pages, give the URL—but omit the http:// at the beginning.
• If a doi (digital object indicator) number is available, use that instead of a URL.
• Do not break URLs or doi’s manually to try and fit them into your Works Cited: just type them in and let your Word processor decide where to break them.
• If you have a different kind of source and believe you have a location with it, share it as best you can, following these guidelines.
• Locations are in plain font and followed by a period.

Here’s what you would have for line 9:

www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2016/01/mentorship-in-public-schools/423945.

Now, to create a Works Cited citation, link all of the available elements together, following the correct punctuation and placing a space between each component.

• Don’t break your lines manually: set hanging paragraphs and then keep typing, allowing the software to determine the line breaks.
• Your citation should always end with a period.

Here’s what the final citation would include:

Sebenius, Alyza. “The Importance of High School Mentors.” The Atlantic, The Atlantic Monthly Group, 13 Jan. 2016, www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2016/01/mentorship-in-public-schools/423945/.

And here’s what it will look like on the Works Cited page with double spacing and hanging paragraphs:

## Check Your Understanding: Creating Citations

Create a Works Cited citation for this story from the Los Angeles Times (found at latimes.com): “Inside the Deal that Brought Sony’s ‘Spider-Man’ Back to Marvel’s Cinematic Universe.”

See the Appendix, Results for the “Check Your Understanding” Activities, for answers.

## Introduction

I used LaTeX to layout my report, as it provides beautiful mathematics and a powerful way of handling references. Along the way I learned quite a lot about using it effectively, which might be of help to other people writing a thesis, so hence this page.

I found a lot by Googling and reading tutorials, and the the compulsory read for anyone starting with LaTeX is The Not So Short Introduction to LaTeX. It takes you through the first steps, but also provides in-depth tips.

I use the MiKTeX installation and my LaTeX editor of choice is TeXnicCenter. I further have GhostScript installed, which allows me to use .eps images.

## Main document file

The main document file describes the structure of the document, and links to separate files containing the actual content of the report. The following code is found sequentially in the document.

### Document type

My thesis was laid out as a book, on A4 paper, with the equations set to float to the left.

\documentclass[a4paper,fleqn]{book}

### Packages

The options in LaTeX can be added and/or extended by means of packages. I use quite a long list, and I will explain the relevant ones.

\usepackage{graphicx,amsfonts,psfrag,fancyhdr,layout,appendix,subfigure} \usepackage[sectionbib]{natbib} \usepackage{chapterbib}
graphicx
essential for adding images to you document.
amsfonts
includes a list of mathematical symbols and styles. Useful if you are using equations a lot.
psfrag
I use eps files for my pictures, and with this package I can replace text in those images. This allows me to have the same font size and type in both images and text.
fancyhdr
this package allows control over the headers and footers for documents with class book. The use is non-trivial, but powerful results are possible.
layout
simple package, which prints an overview of all the margins on the page when you insert .
appendix
allows more detailed control over the appendices.
subfigure
extremely useful package which allows you to put multiple figures (and tables!) in a figure environment, so that you can refer to them individually, e.g. Figure 5(a).
natbib
powerful extension for controlling your references. The package has a lot of options, and in this case I use the option, as I wanted to have multiple bibliographies in my document, and they should be labelled as section, and not as chapters.
chapterbib
package which controls the multiple bibliographies for the document. This has important consequences for the document though, as I will explain later. To get this working, you first need to run BibTeX for each of the chapters for which you want to have the bibliography, followed by compiling the entire document.

### Margins

The default for the book documentclass is that the margins differ on the even/odd pages. I prefer equal margins, and thus explictly set them. For determining the correct values I used the option.

% Set equal margins on book style \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{53pt} \setlength{\evensidemargin}{53pt} \setlength{\marginparwidth}{57pt} \setlength{\footskip}{30pt}

Using fancy headers is rather tricky and cumbersome, but the results are nice. I will walk through the pieces of code throughout the document. What is important to know are the commands such as . The stand for Odd and Even pages, and for Left or Right side of the page.

% Redefine plain page style \fancypagestyle{plain}{ \fancyhf{} \renewcommand{\headrulewidth}{0pt} \fancyfoot[LE,RO]{\thepage} }

Redefining the plain page style such that it has no horizontal line at the top, nothing in the page headers, and it has the pagenumbers always on the outside of the pages ().

% Code for creating empty pages % No headers on empty pages before new chapter \makeatletter \def\cleardoublepage{\clearpage\if@twoside \ifodd\c@page\else \hbox{} \thispagestyle{plain} \newpage \if@twocolumn\hbox{}\newpage\fi\fi\fi} \makeatother \clearpage{\pagestyle{plain}\cleardoublepage}

With the book style a new chapter always starts on an odd page. If the previous page is empty, the above code ensures that it is of .

The fancy page style is first defined here, but it will be changed and augmented throughout the document.

The code describes that the page numbers, , should be in the footer and always on the outer edge of the pages.

On even pages, the Chapter name should be shown on the right and in italics. The latter is achieved by redefining , and using . The position of the chapter name will be changed after the front matter.

### Paragraph formatting

I prefer the Dutch style of paragraph formatting, with no indents, and with whitespace separating the paragraphs.

% Dutch style of paragraph formatting, i.e. no indents. \setlength{\parskip}{1.3ex plus 0.2ex minus 0.2ex} \setlength{\parindent}{0pt}

### Table of Content

I prefer a smaller TOC with less details.

% Less detailed TOC \setcounter{tocdepth}{1}

### Document start

% Document starts here \begin{document}

The book style divides the document into three parts, for Preface, Summary, etc. which have Roman numeral for page numbers, for the main content with Arabic numerals, for the Appendices and for the Bibliography.

### Front matter

\frontmatter \include{msc_titlepage} \include{msc_preface} \include{msc_summary} % Remove parskip for toc \setlength{\parskip}{0ex plus 0.5ex minus 0.2ex} \tableofcontents % Dutch style of paragraph formatting, i.e. no indents. \setlength{\parskip}{1.3ex plus 0.2ex minus 0.2ex}

The various parts of the document are d, which makes sure they start on an odd page. Also, the paragraph formatting is changed so that there is no for the TOC.

### Main matter

The fancy headers are adjusted again. This time, the odd pages will have the chapter name on the left, and the even pages will have Chapter X on the right. This way both texts will be towards the inner margin of the book, and it will look as if it were one sentence.

All chapters are d, except the conclusion. The reason why this is done is tricky to understand and has to do with the use of the package. That package requires the use of to create individual bibliographies per chapter. However, if there are references in your chapter, but you do not want a separate bibliography, you must use , as is the case with the conclusions in this example.

I had two full bilbiographies in my report, one before the Appendices, and one after, as the report would be handed in as two individual booklets. The makes sure that the Bibliography is placed in the TOC as a chapter.

### Appendix

The adds a separating entry to the TOC, saying Appendices. The option then makes sure that there is no pagenumber after that line.

The fancy headers are adjusted again, to now say Appendix X, and the horizontal line is redefined as it was erased by the use of the pagestyle just prior to the appendices.

Note that all appendices use as they contain references, but do not need an individual bibliography.

### Backmatter

The is used to add entries to the Bibliography, which had not been cited in the text. It is used to add some references which provide background information.

\end{document}

## Various LaTeX tips

### Citing

I use the NatBib package for citing, and it has useful features. An important aspect is the difference between and .

\citep{pellegrino1986} \citet{pellegrino1986} \citep[e.g.][p.p. 220]{coxeter} would result, when using the harvard citation style, in Pellegrino 1986 (Pellegrino, 1986) (e.g. Coxeter, 1989, p.p. 220)

### Subtables

In some occasions it is desirable to have various subtables, with one common table number. That can be done using the package.

\begin{table} \caption{Caption for total table} \centering \subtable[Caption for table 1]{ \begin{tabular}{ccc} \end{tabular} \label{tab:firsttable} } \qquad\qquad \subtable[Caption for table 2]{ \begin{tabular}{ccc} \end{tabular} \label{tab:secondtable} } \end{table}

If you refer to the second table with it will give you something like Table 5(b).

### psfrag

I use eps images throughout the report. As a consequence one cannot use the pdflatex package, as it cannot handle eps images. Therefore you have to first convert to PostScript and then to PDF, using GhostScript. A benefit of using eps is that you can use to replace text in the image by the default LaTeX fonttype and fontsize.

\begin{figure}[p] \centering \psfrag{v1}{$\mathbf{v}_1$} \psfrag{v2}{$\mathbf{v}_2$} \psfrag{v3}{$\mathbf{v}_3$} \psfrag{origin}{origin} \includegraphics[width=0.45\textwidth]{images/conus.eps} \caption{A conic intersected by a plane generates a conic section.} \label{fig:conus} \end{figure}

### Removing whitespace

When using abbreviations such as i.e. the last period can be interpreted as a period for the end of a sentence, and as a result the space can be quite large and ugly. There is a way to prevent that.

i.e.\ rest of text here

### Correct page number for Bibliography in TOC

When you insert a bibliography into your thesis, for example like this: